Moses, a prophet of God, was given its design upon the mountain, and told to build everything according to the Pattern He had seen there.
Of its physical elements, there were several major elements, and possibly more than listed here.
There were materials for the posts, curtains, drapes, and altars. There were dimensions (lengths and widths). There were counts (number of posts, pillars, etc). There was furniture (the altars and tables). There were their utensils (shovels, rakes, censers, etc). There was its orientation (which way it faced). There was its layout, with three chambers, each further in.
In addition, there were its gates, how it was to be consecrated, packed up, transported, and set up again, and the way that the priests related to these.